KN Agri Impex

An ISO9001:2008 certified Agriculture food products import export company



Rice is a staple food crop in many parts of the world, including India. In fact, about 65% of the people consume rice as part of their diet in India. India is the second largest producer of rice after China, accounting for about 90 million tons of production in the world. Rice is cultivated during both winter and summer, with over 4000 varieties of rice being grown every year. In countries where agriculture is the main occupation, the cultivation of rice is seen as the principal activity and a major source of income

Rice is defined as a cereal grain belonging to the grass family of 'Poaceae'. Rice belongs to two species of Poaceae crop, namely, 'Oryza Sativa' and 'Oryza Glaberrima'.
The rice plant grows at a rate of 2-6 feet, and has long, pointed and flat leaves. It has stalk bearing flowers from which the the rice grains are produced. The rice plant needs both warmth and moisture for its proper growth. Rice is typically grown as an annual plant, although in some tropical regions, it is also grown as a perennial plant. It is considered to be one of the few crops that is non-glutenous and non-allergic.  

Types of Rice
The most basic parameter on which rice is can be classified is according to its length. According to this criteria, one can find four types of rice. These are:
  • Long Grain Rice/Basmati Rice: It belongs to the category of 'Indica Rice' or long grained rice. The grain of the rice is long, and is about 5 times longer than its width. The long grain rice narrow, long kernels. The long grain rice is known as a 'rough' or 'paddy' rice at the time of its harvesting. Its grains, when cooked, are light in weight as well as soft in texture. Due to its full-bodied flavor and versatility, the long grain rice is also known as an 'all purpose rice' or 'basmati rice', and is an ideal choice for an every day meal. Basmati rice is mainly cultivated in climates that are warm, like those in India, Pakistan and Thailand. The long grain rice is further classified as 'Long Grain Brown Rice' and 'Long Grain White Rice'
  • Medium Grain Rice: This type of rice has a creamy color and a slightly chewy texture.  The kernels of this kind of rice are shorter and wider as compared to that of long grain rice and also do not always remain fluffy. It is an ideal form to be used in desserts, breads, etc. The grains of the medium grain rice are 2-3 times longer than the width, which is about 5 mm in length.  It can also be further classified as 'Medium Grain Brown Rice' and 'Medium Grain White Rice'
  • Short Grain Rice: Belonging to the 'Japonica' (round grained) category of rice, the grains of this type of rice have short and plump kernels. This rice is identified as having a smooth, creamy texture, ideal for making rice pudding and other sweet dishes involving the use of rice. The length of the grains is 4 mm while its width is around 2.5 mm. It is mainly grown in cold weather areas, such as Japan, Korea and China. This type of rice can also be further classified as 'Short Grain Brown Rice' and 'Short Grain White Rice'.

Varieties of Rice
Although there are more than 4000 varieties of rice that are growing every year, the most common varieties of rice that are seen in the market can be described as follows:
  • Brown Rice: It is a variety of rice in which only the hull is removed. Due to the bran layers that are left on the grain, it has a natural tan color. The texture of the brown rice is slightly chewy with a nut like flavor, which is due to the bran present inside the grain. Brown rice takes about 30-45 minutes to cook and is considered to be a very good for health because of its nutritional value, as it contains less of starch as compared to white rice
  • White Rice: White rice is defined as that form of rice whose husk, bran and germ have been removed completely during the milling process. Because the white rice undergoes this process, it is also known as 'polished rice'. The entire husk, bran and germ get removed so that the rice does not get spoiled. In this manner, its storage capacity is increased to a great extent. It has a delicate flavor and contains lots of nutrients like thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron
  • Parboiled Rice: Parboiled rice is yet another variety of rice which is cooked in a steam pressure before it is milled. The steam pressure process helps in pushing the vitamins and minerals present in the outer coats to shift to the central part of the kernel. The entire process of cooking takes about 20 minutes, and after cooking, the rice becomes firm in texture and also the grains of the parboiled rice do not cling to each other after it has been cooked.